The legislature declares that waterborne transportation as a source of supply for oil and hazardous substances poses special concern for the state of Washington. Each year billions of gallons of crude oil and refined petroleum products are transported as cargo and fuel by vessels on the navigable waters of the state. The movement of crude oil through rail corridors and over Washington waters creates safety and environmental risks. The sources and transport of crude oil bring risks to our communities along rail lines and to the Columbia river, Grays Harbor, and Puget Sound waters. These shipments are expected to increase in the coming years. Vessels and trains transporting oil into Washington travel on some of the most unique and special marine environments in the United States. These marine environments are a source of natural beauty, recreation, and economic livelihood for many residents of this state. As a result, the state has an obligation to ensure the citizens of the state that the waters of the state will be protected from oil spills.
The legislature finds that prevention is the best method to protect the unique and special marine environments in this state. The technology for containing and cleaning up a spill of oil or hazardous substances is at best only partially effective. Preventing spills is more protective of the environment and more cost-effective when all the response and damage costs associated with responding to a spill are considered. Therefore, the legislature finds that the primary objective of the state is to achieve a zero spills strategy to prevent any oil or hazardous substances from entering waters of the state.
The legislature also finds that:
Recent accidents in Washington, Alaska, southern California, Texas, Pennsylvania, and other parts of the nation have shown that the transportation, transfer, and storage of oil have caused significant damage to the marine environment;
Even with the best efforts, it is nearly impossible to remove all oil that is spilled into the water, and average removal rates are only fourteen percent;
Washington's navigable waters are treasured environmental and economic resources that the state cannot afford to place at undue risk from an oil spill;
The state has a fundamental responsibility, as the trustee of the state's natural resources and the protector of public health and the environment to prevent the spill of oil; and
In section 5002 of the federal oil pollution act of 1990, the United States congress found that many people believed that complacency on the part of industry and government was one of the contributing factors to the Exxon Valdez spill and, further, that one method to combat this complacency is to involve local citizens in the monitoring and oversight of oil spill plans. Congress also found that a mechanism should be established that fosters the long-term partnership of industry, government, and local communities in overseeing compliance with environmental concerns in the operation of crude oil terminals. Moreover, congress concluded that, in addition to Alaska, a program of citizen monitoring and oversight should be established in other major crude oil terminals in the United States because recent oil spills indicate that the safe transportation of oil is a national problem.
In order to establish a comprehensive prevention and response program to protect Washington's waters and natural resources from spills of oil, it is the purpose of this chapter:
To establish state agency expertise in marine safety and to centralize state activities in spill prevention and response activities;
To prevent spills of oil and to promote programs that reduce the risk of both catastrophic and small chronic spills;
To ensure that responsible parties are liable, and have the resources and ability, to respond to spills and provide compensation for all costs and damages;
To provide for state spill response and wildlife rescue planning and implementation;
To support and complement the federal oil pollution act of 1990 and other federal law, especially those provisions relating to the national contingency plan for cleanup of oil spills and discharges, including provisions relating to the responsibilities of state agencies designated as natural resource trustees. The legislature intends this chapter to be interpreted and implemented in a manner consistent with federal law;
To provide broad powers of regulation to the department of ecology relating to spill prevention and response;
To provide for independent review on an ongoing basis the adequacy of oil spill prevention, preparedness, and response activities in this state;
To provide an adequate funding source for state response and prevention programs; and
To maintain the best achievable protection that can be obtained through the use of the best achievable technology and those staffing levels, training procedures, and operational methods that provide the greatest degree of protection achievable.
The definitions in this section apply throughout this chapter unless the context clearly requires otherwise.
"Best achievable protection" means the highest level of protection that can be achieved through the use of the best achievable technology and those staffing levels, training procedures, and operational methods that provide the greatest degree of protection achievable. The director's determination of best achievable protection shall be guided by the critical need to protect the state's natural resources and waters, while considering (a) the additional protection provided by the measures; (b) the technological achievability of the measures; and (c) the cost of the measures.
"Best achievable technology" means the technology that provides the greatest degree of protection taking into consideration (a) processes that are being developed, or could feasibly be developed, given overall reasonable expenditures on research and development, and (b) processes that are currently in use. In determining what is best achievable technology, the director shall consider the effectiveness, engineering feasibility, and commercial availability of the technology.
"Board" means the pollution control hearings board.
"Bulk" means material that is stored or transported in a loose, unpackaged liquid, powder, or granular form capable of being conveyed by a pipe, bucket, chute, or belt system.
"Cargo vessel" means a self-propelled ship in commerce, other than a tank vessel or a passenger vessel, three hundred or more gross tons, including but not limited to, commercial fish processing vessels and freighters.
"Committee" means the preassessment screening committee established under RCW 90.48.368.
"Covered vessel" means a tank vessel, cargo vessel, or passenger vessel.
"Crude oil" means any naturally occurring hydrocarbons coming from the earth that are liquid at twenty-five degrees Celsius and one atmosphere of pressure including, but not limited to, crude oil, bitumen and diluted bitumen, synthetic crude oil, and natural gas well condensate.
"Department" means the department of ecology.
"Director" means the director of the department of ecology.
"Discharge" means any spilling, leaking, pumping, pouring, emitting, emptying, or dumping.
"Facility" means any structure, group of structures, equipment, pipeline, or device, other than a vessel, located on or near the navigable waters of the state that transfers oil in bulk to or from a tank vessel or pipeline, that is used for producing, storing, handling, transferring, processing, or transporting oil in bulk.
For the purposes of oil spill contingency planning in RCW 90.56.210, facility also means a railroad that is not owned by the state that transports oil as bulk cargo.
Except as provided in (b) of this subsection, a facility does not include any: (i) Railroad car, motor vehicle, or other rolling stock while transporting oil over the highways or rail lines of this state; (ii) underground storage tank regulated by the department or a local government under chapter 70A.355 RCW; (iii) motor vehicle motor fuel outlet; (iv) facility that is operated as part of an exempt agricultural activity as provided in RCW 82.04.330; or (v) marine fuel outlet that does not dispense more than three thousand gallons of fuel to a ship that is not a covered vessel, in a single transaction.
"Fund" means the state coastal protection fund as provided in RCW 90.48.390 and 90.48.400.
"Having control over oil" shall include but not be limited to any person using, storing, or transporting oil immediately prior to entry of such oil into the waters of the state, and shall specifically include carriers and bailees of such oil.
"Marine facility" means any facility used for tank vessel wharfage or anchorage, including any equipment used for the purpose of handling or transferring oil in bulk to or from a tank vessel.
"Navigable waters of the state" means those waters of the state, and their adjoining shorelines, that are subject to the ebb and flow of the tide and/or are presently used, have been used in the past, or may be susceptible for use to transport intrastate, interstate, or foreign commerce.
"Necessary expenses" means the expenses incurred by the department and assisting state agencies for (a) investigating the source of the discharge; (b) investigating the extent of the environmental damage caused by the discharge; (c) conducting actions necessary to clean up the discharge; (d) conducting predamage and damage assessment studies; and (e) enforcing the provisions of this chapter and collecting for damages caused by a discharge.
"Offshore facility" means any facility located in, on, or under any of the navigable waters of the state, but does not include a facility any part of which is located in, on, or under any land of the state, other than submerged land.
"Oil" or "oils" means oil of any kind that is liquid at twenty-five degrees Celsius and one atmosphere of pressure and any fractionation thereof, including, but not limited to, crude oil, bitumen, synthetic crude oil, natural gas well condensate, petroleum, gasoline, fuel oil, diesel oil, biological oils and blends, oil sludge, oil refuse, and oil mixed with wastes other than dredged spoil. Oil does not include any substance listed in Table 302.4 of 40 C.F.R. Part 302 adopted August 14, 1989, under section 102(a) of the federal comprehensive environmental response, compensation, and liability act of 1980, as amended by P.L. 99-499.
"Onshore facility" means any facility any part of which is located in, on, or under any land of the state, other than submerged land, that because of its location, could reasonably be expected to cause substantial harm to the environment by discharging oil into or on the navigable waters of the state or the adjoining shorelines.
"Owner or operator" means (i) in the case of a vessel, any person owning, operating, or chartering by demise, the vessel; (ii) in the case of an onshore or offshore facility, any person owning or operating the facility; and (iii) in the case of an abandoned vessel or onshore or offshore facility, the person who owned or operated the vessel or facility immediately before its abandonment.
"Operator" does not include any person who owns the land underlying a facility if the person is not involved in the operations of the facility.
"Passenger vessel" means a ship of three hundred or more gross tons with a fuel capacity of at least six thousand gallons carrying passengers for compensation.
"Person" means any political subdivision, government agency, municipality, industry, public or private corporation, copartnership, association, firm, individual, or any other entity whatsoever.
"Ship" means any boat, ship, vessel, barge, or other floating craft of any kind.
"Spill" means an unauthorized discharge of oil or hazardous substances into the waters of the state.
"Tank vessel" means a ship that is constructed or adapted to carry, or that carries, oil in bulk as cargo or cargo residue, and that:
Operates on the waters of the state; or
Transfers oil in a port or place subject to the jurisdiction of this state.
"Waters of the state" includes lakes, rivers, ponds, streams, inland waters, underground water, salt waters, estuaries, tidal flats, beaches and lands adjoining the seacoast of the state, sewers, and all other surface waters and watercourses within the jurisdiction of the state of Washington.
"Worst case spill" means: (a) In the case of a vessel, a spill of the entire cargo and fuel of the vessel complicated by adverse weather conditions; and (b) in the case of an onshore or offshore facility, the largest foreseeable spill in adverse weather conditions.
[ 2020 c 20 § 1505; 2015 c 274 § 3; 2007 c 347 § 6; 2000 c 69 § 15; 1992 c 73 § 31; 1991 c 200 § 102; 1990 c 116 § 2; 1989 c 388 § 6; 1985 c 316 § 5; 1971 ex.s. c 180 § 1; 1970 ex.s. c 88 § 1; 1969 ex.s. c 133 § 10; ]
Except as otherwise specifically provided in this chapter or other law, the director has the primary authority, in conformance with the statewide master oil and hazardous substance spill prevention and contingency plan adopted pursuant to RCW 90.56.060 and any applicable contingency plans prepared pursuant to this chapter and chapter 88.46 RCW, to oversee prevention, abatement, response, containment, and cleanup efforts with regard to any oil or hazardous substance spill in the navigable waters of the state. The director is the head of the state incident command system in response to a spill of oil or hazardous substances and shall coordinate the response efforts of all state agencies and local emergency response personnel. If a discharge of oil or hazardous substances is subject to the national contingency plan, in responding to the discharge, the director shall to the greatest extent practicable act in accordance with the national contingency plan and cooperate with the federal on-scene coordinator or other federal agency or official exercising authority under the national contingency plan.
[ 1991 c 200 § 103; ]
The powers, duties, and functions conferred by this chapter shall be exercised by the department of ecology and shall be deemed an essential government function in the exercise of the police power of the state. Such powers, duties, and functions of the department shall extend to all waters under the jurisdiction of the state.
This chapter grants authority to the department which is supplemental to and in no way reduces or otherwise modifies the powers granted to the department by other statutes.
The department may adopt rules including but not limited to the following matters:
Procedures and methods of reporting discharges and other occurrences prohibited by this chapter;
Procedures, methods, means, and equipment to be used by persons subject to regulation by this chapter and such rules may prescribe the times, places, and methods of transfer of oil;
Coordination of procedures, methods, means, and equipment to be used in the removal of oil;
Development and implementation of criteria and plans to meet oil spills of various kinds and degrees;
When and under what circumstances, if any, chemical agents, such as coagulants, dispersants, and bioremediation, may be used in response to an oil spill;
The disposal of oil recovered from a spill; and
Such other rules and regulations as the exigencies of any condition may require or such as may be reasonably necessary to carry out the intent of this chapter.
The department shall prepare and annually update a statewide master oil and hazardous substance spill prevention and contingency plan. In preparing the plan, the department shall consult with an advisory committee representing diverse interests concerned with oil and hazardous substance spills, including the United States coast guard, the federal environmental protection agency, other appropriate federal agencies, appropriate agencies from other states, interested federally recognized tribes, state agencies, local governments, port districts, private facilities, environmental organizations, oil companies, shipping companies, spill management, cleanup, and containment contractors, tow companies, and hazardous substance manufacturers.
For the purposes of this subsection, "spill management" means managing:
Some or all aspects of a response, containment, and cleanup of a spill and utilizing an incident command or unified command structure; or
Wildlife rehabilitation and recovery services for a spill response.
The state master plan prepared under this section shall at a minimum:
Take into consideration the elements of oil spill prevention and contingency plans approved or submitted for approval pursuant to this chapter and chapter 88.46 RCW and oil and hazardous substance spill contingency plans prepared pursuant to other state or federal law or prepared by federal agencies and regional entities;
State the respective responsibilities as established by relevant statutes and rules of each of the following in the prevention of and the assessment, containment, and cleanup of a worst case spill of oil or hazardous substances into the environment of the state: (i) State agencies; (ii) local governments; (iii) appropriate federal agencies; (iv) facility operators; (v) property owners whose land or other property may be affected by the oil or hazardous substance spill; (vi) federally recognized tribes; and (vii) other parties identified by the department as having an interest in or the resources to assist in the containment and cleanup of an oil or hazardous substance spill;
State the respective responsibilities of the parties identified in (b) of this subsection in an emergency response;
Identify actions necessary to reduce the likelihood of spills of oil and hazardous substances;
Identify and obtain mapping of environmentally sensitive areas at particular risk to oil and hazardous substance spills;
Establish an incident command system for responding to oil and hazardous substances spills; and
Establish a process for immediately notifying affected tribes of any oil spill.
In preparing and updating the state master plan, the department shall:
Consult with federal, provincial, municipal, and community officials, other state agencies, the state of Oregon, the state of Idaho, and with representatives of affected regional organizations;
Invite consultation and engagement from federally recognized tribes;
Submit the draft plan to the public for review and comment;
Submit to the appropriate standing committees of the legislature for review, not later than November 1st of each year, the plan and any annual revision of the plan; and
Require or schedule unannounced oil spill drills as required by RCW 90.56.260 to test the sufficiency of oil spill contingency plans approved under RCW 90.56.210 and as required under RCW 88.46.068, 88.46.139, and 88.46.220 for plans approved under RCW 88.46.060.
The department shall evaluate the functions of advisory committees created by the department regarding oil spill prevention, preparedness, and response programs, and shall revise or eliminate those functions which are no longer necessary.
In carrying out the purposes of this chapter, including the adoption of rules for contingency plans, the department shall to the greatest extent practicable implement this chapter in a manner consistent with federal law.
[ 1991 c 200 § 108; ]
The division of fire protection services shall establish and manage the Washington oil and hazardous substances incident response training and education program to provide approved classes in hazardous substance response, taught by trained instructors. To carry out this program, the division of fire protection services shall:
Adopt rules necessary to implement the program;
Establish a training and education program by developing the curriculum to be used in the program in colleges, academies, and other educational institutions;
Provide training to local oil and hazardous materials emergency response personnel; and
Establish and collect admission fees and other fees that may be necessary to the program.
The Washington wildlife rescue coalition is established for the purpose of coordinating the rescue and rehabilitation of wildlife injured or endangered by oil spills or the release of other hazardous substances into the environment.
The Washington wildlife rescue coalition shall be composed of:
A representative of the department of fish and wildlife designated by the director of fish and wildlife. The department of fish and wildlife shall be designated as lead agency in the operations of the coalition. The coalition shall be chaired by the representative from the department of fish and wildlife;
A representative of the department of ecology designated by the director;
A representative of the Washington military department emergency management division, designated by the director of the Washington military department;
A licensed veterinarian, with experience and training in wildlife rehabilitation, appointed by the veterinary board of governors;
A lay person, with training and experience in the rescue and rehabilitation of wildlife appointed by the department; and
A person designated by the legislative authority of the county where oil spills or spills of other hazardous substances may occur. This member of the coalition shall serve on the coalition until wildlife rescue and rehabilitation is completed in that county. The completion of any rescue or rehabilitation project shall be determined by the director of fish and wildlife.
The duties of the Washington wildlife rescue coalition are to:
Develop an emergency mobilization plan to rescue and rehabilitate waterfowl and other wildlife that are injured or endangered by an oil spill or the release of other hazardous substances into the environment;
Develop and maintain a resource directory of persons, governmental agencies, and private organizations that may provide assistance in an emergency rescue effort;
Provide advance training and instruction to volunteers in rescuing and rehabilitating waterfowl and wildlife injured or endangered by oil spills or the release of other hazardous substances into the environment. The training may be provided through grants to community colleges or to groups that conduct programs for training volunteers. The coalition representatives from the agencies described in subsection (2) of this section shall coordinate their training efforts and work to provide training opportunities for young citizens;
Obtain and maintain equipment and supplies used in emergency rescue efforts.
Expenses for the coalition may be provided by the coastal protection fund administered according to RCW 90.48.400.
The coalition is encouraged to seek grants, gifts, or donations from private sources in order to carry out the provisions of this section and RCW 90.56.110. Any private funds donated to the commission shall be deposited into the wildlife rescue account hereby created within the *wildlife fund as authorized under Title 77 RCW.
The department of fish and wildlife may adopt rules including, but not limited to, the following:
Procedures and methods of handling and caring for waterfowl or other wildlife affected by spills of oil and other hazardous materials;
The certification of persons trained in the removal of pollutants from waterfowl or other wildlife;
Development of procedures with respect to removal of oil and other hazardous substances from waterfowl or other wildlife;
The establishment of training exercises, courses, and other training procedures as necessary;
Such other rules as may be reasonably necessary to carry out the intent of RCW 90.56.100.
The owner or operator for each onshore and offshore facility, except as determined in subsection (3) of this section, shall prepare and submit to the department an oil spill prevention plan in conformance with the requirements of this chapter. The plans shall be submitted to the department in the time and manner directed by the department. The spill prevention plan may be consolidated with a spill contingency plan submitted pursuant to RCW 90.56.210. The department may accept plans prepared to comply with other state or federal law as spill prevention plans to the extent those plans comply with the requirements of this chapter. The department, by rule, shall establish standards for spill prevention plans.
The spill prevention plan for an onshore or offshore facility shall:
Establish compliance with the federal oil pollution act of 1990, if applicable, and financial responsibility requirements under federal and state law;
Certify that supervisory and other key personnel in charge of transfer, storage, and handling of oil have received certification pursuant to RCW 90.56.220;
Certify that the facility has an operations manual required by RCW 90.56.230;
Certify the implementation of alcohol and drug use awareness programs;
Describe the facility's maintenance and inspection program and contain a current maintenance and inspection record of the storage and transfer facilities and related equipment;
Describe the facility's alcohol and drug treatment programs;
Describe spill prevention technology that has been installed, including overflow alarms, automatic overflow cut-off switches, secondary containment facilities, and stormwater retention, treatment, and discharge systems;
Describe any discharges of oil to the land or the water of more than twenty-five barrels in the prior five years and the measures taken to prevent a reoccurrence;
Describe the procedures followed by the facility to contain and recover any oil that spills during the transfer of oil to or from the facility;
Provide for the incorporation into the facility during the period covered by the plan of those measures that will provide the best achievable protection for the public health and the environment; and
Include any other information reasonably necessary to carry out the purposes of this chapter required by rules adopted by the department.
Plan requirements in subsection (2) of this section are not applicable to railroad facility operators while transporting oil over rail lines of this state.
The department shall only approve a prevention plan if it provides the best achievable protection from damages caused by the discharge of oil into the waters of the state and if it determines that the plan meets the requirements of this section and rules adopted by the department.
Upon approval of a prevention plan, the department shall provide to the person submitting the plan a statement indicating that the plan has been approved, the facilities covered by the plan, and other information the department determines should be included.
The approval of a prevention plan shall be valid for five years. An owner or operator of a facility shall notify the department in writing immediately of any significant change of which it is aware affecting its prevention plan, including changes in any factor set forth in this section or in rules adopted by the department. The department may require the owner or operator to update a prevention plan as a result of these changes.
The department by rule shall require prevention plans to be reviewed, updated, if necessary, and resubmitted to the department at least once every five years.
Approval of a prevention plan by the department does not constitute an express assurance regarding the adequacy of the plan nor constitute a defense to liability imposed under this chapter or other state law.
This section does not authorize the department to modify the terms of a collective bargaining agreement.
Each onshore and offshore facility shall have a contingency plan for the containment and cleanup of oil spills from the facility into the waters of the state and for the protection of fisheries and wildlife, shellfish beds, natural resources, and public and private property from such spills. The department shall by rule adopt and periodically revise standards for the preparation of contingency plans. The department shall require contingency plans, at a minimum, to meet the following standards:
Include full details of the method of response to spills of various sizes from any facility which is covered by the plan;
Be designed to be capable in terms of personnel, materials, and equipment, of promptly and properly, to the maximum extent practicable, as defined by the department removing oil and minimizing any damage to the environment resulting from a worst case spill;
Provide a clear, precise, and detailed description of how the plan relates to and is integrated into relevant contingency plans which have been prepared by cooperatives, ports, regional entities, the state, and the federal government;
Provide procedures for early detection of oil spills and timely notification of such spills to appropriate federal, state, and local authorities under applicable state and federal law;
State the number, training preparedness, and fitness of all dedicated, prepositioned personnel assigned to direct and implement the plan;
Incorporate periodic training and drill programs to evaluate whether personnel and equipment provided under the plan are in a state of operational readiness at all times;
Describe important features of the surrounding environment, including fish habitat, water column species and subsurface resources, wildlife habitat, shellfish beds, environmentally and archaeologically sensitive areas, and public facilities, that are: (i) Based on information documented in geographic response plans and area contingency plans, as required under RCW 90.56.210; or (ii) for areas without geographic response plans or area contingency plans, existing practices protecting these resources used for similar areas. The departments of ecology, fish and wildlife, and natural resources, and the department of archaeology and historic preservation, upon request, shall provide information that they have available to assist in preparing this description. The description of archaeologically sensitive areas shall not be required to be included in a contingency plan until it is reviewed and updated pursuant to subsection (9) of this section;
State the means of protecting and mitigating effects on the environment, including fish, shellfish, marine mammals, and other wildlife, and ensure that implementation of the plan does not pose unacceptable risks to the public or the environment;
Provide arrangements for the prepositioning of oil spill containment and cleanup equipment and trained personnel at strategic locations from which they can be deployed to the spill site to promptly and properly remove the spilled oil;
Provide arrangements for enlisting the use of qualified and trained cleanup personnel to implement the plan;
Provide for disposal of recovered spilled oil in accordance with local, state, and federal laws;
Until a spill prevention plan has been submitted pursuant to RCW 90.56.200, state the measures that have been taken to reduce the likelihood that a spill will occur, including but not limited to, design and operation of a facility, training of personnel, number of personnel, and backup systems designed to prevent a spill;
State the amount and type of equipment available to respond to a spill, where the equipment is located, and the extent to which other contingency plans rely on the same equipment; and
If the department has adopted rules permitting the use of dispersants, the circumstances, if any, and the manner for the application of the dispersants in conformance with the department's rules.
The following shall submit contingency plans to the department within six months after the department adopts rules establishing standards for contingency plans under subsection (1) of this section:
Onshore facilities capable of storing one million gallons or more of oil; and
Contingency plans for all other onshore and offshore facilities shall be submitted to the department within eighteen months after the department has adopted rules under subsection (1) of this section. The department may adopt a schedule for submission of plans within the eighteen-month period.
The department by rule shall determine the contingency plan requirements for railroads transporting oil in bulk.
For class III railroads transporting oil in bulk that is not crude oil in an amount of forty-nine or more tank carloads per year, the rules adopted under this subsection may not require contingency plans to include:
Contracted access to oil spill response equipment; or
The completion of more than a total of one basic tabletop drill every three years to test the contingency plans.
For class III railroads transporting oil in bulk that is not crude oil in an amount less than forty-nine tank carloads per year, rules adopted under this subsection may only require railroads to submit a basic contingency plan to the department. A basic contingency plan filed under this subsection (3)(c) must be limited to requiring the class III railroads to:
Keep documentation of the basic contingency plan on file with the department at the plan holder's principal place of business and at dispatcher field offices of the railroad;
Identify and include contact information for the chain of command and other personnel, including employees or spill response contractors, who will be involved in the railroad's response in the event of a spill;
Include information related to the relevant accident insurance carried by the railroad and provide a certificate of insurance upon request;
Develop a field document for use by personnel involved in oil handling operations that includes time-critical information regarding basic contingency plan procedures to be used in the initial response to a spill or a threatened spill; and
Annually review the plan for accuracy.
Federal oil spill response plans created pursuant to 33 U.S.C. Sec. 1321 may be submitted in lieu of contingency plans by a class III railroad transporting oil in bulk that is not crude oil.
For the purposes of this section, "class III railroad" has the same meaning as defined by the United States surface transportation board as of January 1, 2017.
The owner or operator of a facility shall submit the contingency plan for the facility.
A person who has contracted with a facility to provide containment and cleanup services and who meets the standards established pursuant to RCW 90.56.240, may submit the plan for any facility for which the person is contractually obligated to provide services. Subject to conditions imposed by the department, the person may submit a single plan for more than one facility.
A contingency plan prepared for an agency of the federal government or another state that satisfies the requirements of this section and rules adopted by the department may be accepted by the department as a contingency plan under this section. The department shall ensure that to the greatest extent possible, requirements for contingency plans under this section are consistent with the requirements for contingency plans under federal law.
In reviewing the contingency plans required by this section, the department shall consider at least the following factors:
The adequacy of containment and cleanup equipment, personnel, communications equipment, notification procedures and call down lists, response time, and logistical arrangements for coordination and implementation of response efforts to remove oil spills promptly and properly and to protect the environment;
The nature and amount of vessel traffic within the area covered by the plan;
The volume and type of oil being transported within the area covered by the plan;
The existence of navigational hazards within the area covered by the plan;
The history and circumstances surrounding prior spills of oil within the area covered by the plan;
The sensitivity of fisheries, shellfish beds, and wildlife and other natural resources within the area covered by the plan;
Relevant information on previous spills contained in on-scene coordinator reports prepared by the department; and
The extent to which reasonable, cost-effective measures to prevent a likelihood that a spill will occur have been incorporated into the plan.
The department shall approve a contingency plan only if it determines that the plan meets the requirements of this section and that, if implemented, the plan is capable, in terms of personnel, materials, and equipment, of removing oil promptly and properly and minimizing any damage to the environment.
The approval of the contingency plan shall be valid for five years. Upon approval of a contingency plan, the department shall provide to the person submitting the plan a statement indicating that the plan has been approved, the facilities or vessels covered by the plan, and other information the department determines should be included.
An owner or operator of a facility shall notify the department in writing immediately of any significant change of which it is aware affecting its contingency plan, including changes in any factor set forth in this section or in rules adopted by the department. The department may require the owner or operator to update a contingency plan as a result of these changes.
The department by rule shall require contingency plans to be reviewed, updated, if necessary, and resubmitted to the department at least once every five years.
Approval of a contingency plan by the department does not constitute an express assurance regarding the adequacy of the plan nor constitute a defense to liability imposed under this chapter or other state law.
By December 31, 2019, consistent with the authority under RCW 90.56.210, the department must update rules for contingency plans to require:
Covered facilities to address situations where oils, depending on their qualities, weathering, environmental factors, and method of discharge, may submerge or sink in water; and
Standards for best achievable protection for situations involving the oils in subsection (1) of this section.
[ 2018 c 262 § 302; ]
The department by rule shall adopt standards for onshore and offshore facilities regarding the equipment and operation of the facilities with respect to the transfer, storage, and handling of oil to ensure that the best achievable protection of the public health and the environment is employed at all times. The department shall implement a program to provide for the inspection of all onshore and offshore facilities on a regular schedule to ensure that each facility is in compliance with the standards.
The department shall adopt rules for certification of supervisory and other key personnel in charge of the transfer, storage, and handling of oil at onshore and offshore facilities. The rules shall include, but are not limited to:
Minimum training requirements for all facility workers involved in the transfer, storage, and handling of oil at a facility;
Provisions for periodic renewal of certificates for supervisory and other key personnel involved in the transfer, storage, and handling of oil at the facility; and
Continuing education requirements.
The rules adopted by the department shall not conflict with or modify standards imposed pursuant to federal or state laws regulating worker safety.
[ 1991 c 200 § 203; ]
Each owner or operator of an onshore or offshore facility shall prepare an operations manual describing equipment and procedures involving the transfer, storage, and handling of oil that the operator employs or will employ for best achievable protection for the public health and the environment and to prevent oil spills in the navigable waters. The operations manual shall also describe equipment and procedures required for all vessels to or from which oil is transferred through use of the facility. The operations manual shall be submitted to the department for approval.
Every existing onshore and offshore facility shall prepare and submit to the department its operations manual within eighteen months after the department has adopted rules governing the content of the manual.
The department shall approve an operations manual for an onshore or offshore facility if the manual complies with the rules adopted by the department. If the department determines a manual does not comply with the rules, it shall provide written reasons for the decision. The owner or operator shall resubmit the manual within ninety days of notification of the reasons for noncompliance, responding to the reasons and incorporating any suggested modifications.
The approval of an operations manual shall be valid for five years. The owner or operator of the facility shall notify the department in writing immediately of any significant change in its operations affecting its operations manual. The department may require the owner or operator to modify its operations manual as a result of these changes.
All equipment and operations of an operator's onshore or offshore facility shall be maintained and carried out in accordance with the facility's operations manual. The owner or operator of the facility shall ensure that all covered vessels docked at an onshore or offshore facility comply with the terms of the operations manual for the facility.
[ 1991 c 200 § 204; ]
The department shall by rule establish standards for persons who contract to provide spill management, cleanup, and containment services under contingency plans approved under RCW 90.56.210.
For the purposes of this section, "spill management" means managing:
Some or all aspects of a response, containment, and cleanup of a spill, and utilizing an incident command or unified command structure; or
Wildlife rehabilitation and recovery services for a spill response.
The department shall annually publish an index of available, up-to-date descriptions of prevention plans and contingency plans for oil spills submitted and approved pursuant to RCW 90.56.200, 90.56.210, 88.46.040, and 88.46.060 and an inventory of equipment available for responding to such spills.
The department shall by rule adopt procedures to determine the adequacy of contingency plans approved under RCW 90.56.210. The rules shall require random practice drills without prior notice that will test the adequacy of the responding entities. The rules may provide for unannounced practice drills of individual contingency plans. The department shall review and publish a report on the drills, including an assessment of response time and available equipment and personnel compared to those listed in the contingency plans relying on the responding entities, and requirements, if any, for changes in the plans or their implementation. The department may require additional drills and changes in arrangements for implementing approved plans which are necessary to ensure their effective implementation.
[ 1990 c 116 § 6; ]
The provisions of contingency plans approved by the department under RCW 90.56.210 and prevention plans approved by the department pursuant to RCW 90.56.200 shall be legally binding on those persons submitting them to the department and on their successors, assigns, agents, and employees. The superior court shall have jurisdiction to restrain a violation of, compel specific performance of, or otherwise to enforce such plans upon application by the department. The department may issue an order pursuant to chapter 34.05 RCW requiring compliance with a contingency plan or a prevention plan and may impose administrative penalties under RCW 43.21B.300 for failure to comply with a plan. An order under this section is not subject to review by the pollution control hearings board as provided in RCW 43.21B.110.
Any person responsible or potentially responsible for a discharge, all of the agents and employees of that person, the operators of all vessels docked at an onshore or offshore facility that is a source of a discharge, and all state and local agencies shall carry out response and cleanup operations in accordance with applicable contingency plans, unless directed otherwise by the director or the coast guard. Except as provided in (b) of this subsection, the responsible party, potentially responsible parties, their agents and employees, the operators of all vessels docked at an onshore or offshore facility that is the source of the discharge, and all state and local agencies shall carry out whatever direction is given by the director in connection with the response, containment, and cleanup of the spill, if the directions are not in direct conflict with the directions of the coast guard.
If a responsible party or potentially responsible party reasonably, and in good faith, believes that the directions or orders given by the director pursuant to (a) of this subsection will substantially endanger the public safety or the environment, the party may refuse to act in compliance with the orders or directions of the director. The responsible party or potentially responsible party shall state, at the time of the refusal, the reasons why the party refuses to follow the orders or directions of the director. The responsible party or potentially responsible party shall give the director written notice of the reasons for the refusal within forty-eight hours of refusing to follow the orders or directions of the director. In any civil or criminal proceeding commenced pursuant to this section, the burden of proof shall be on the responsible party or potentially responsible party to demonstrate, by clear and convincing evidence, why the refusal to follow the orders or directions of the director was justified under the circumstances.
The department is responsible for requiring joint large-scale, multiple plan equipment deployment drills of onshore and offshore facilities and covered vessels under chapter 88.46 RCW to determine the adequacy of the owner's or operator's compliance with the contingency plan requirements of this chapter and chapter 88.46 RCW. The department must order at least one drill as outlined in this section every three years, which must address situations where oils, depending on their qualities, weathering, environmental factors, and method of discharge, may submerge or sink in water.
Drills required under this section must focus on, at a minimum, the following:
The functional ability for multiple contingency plans to be simultaneously activated with the purpose of testing the ability for dedicated equipment and trained personnel cited in multiple contingency plans to be activated in a large-scale spill; and
The operational readiness during both the first six hours of a spill and, at the department's discretion, over multiple operational periods of response.
Drills required under this section may be incorporated into other drill requirements under this chapter to avoid increasing the number of drills and equipment deployments otherwise required.
Each successful drill conducted under this section may be considered by the department as a drill of the underlying contingency plan and credit may be awarded to the plan holder accordingly.
The department must prioritize drills for situations where oils, depending on their qualities, weathering, environmental factors, and method of discharge, may submerge or sink in water.
[ 2018 c 262 § 305; ]
It shall be the duty of any person discharging oil or hazardous substances or otherwise causing, permitting, or allowing the same to enter the waters of the state, unless the discharge or entry was expressly authorized by the department prior thereto or authorized by operation of law under RCW 90.48.200, to immediately notify the coast guard and the division of emergency management. The notice to the division of emergency management within the *department of community, trade, and economic development shall be made to the division's twenty-four hour statewide toll-free number established for reporting emergencies.
Except as provided in subsection (3) of this section, it shall be unlawful for the owner or operator to knowingly and intentionally operate in this state or on the waters of this state an onshore or offshore facility without an approved contingency plan or an approved prevention plan as required by this chapter, or financial responsibility in compliance with chapter 88.40 RCW and the federal oil pollution act of 1990.
The first conviction under this section is a gross misdemeanor under chapter 9A.20 RCW.
A second or subsequent conviction is a class C felony under chapter 9A.20 RCW.
It shall not be unlawful for the owner or operator to operate an onshore or offshore facility if:
The facility is not required to have a contingency plan, spill prevention plan, or financial responsibility; or
All required plans have been submitted to the department as required by RCW 90.56.210 and rules adopted by the department and the department is reviewing the plan and has not denied approval.
A person may rely on a copy of the statement issued by the department pursuant to *RCW 90.56.210(7) as evidence that a facility has an approved contingency plan and the statement issued pursuant to **RCW 90.56.200(4) that a facility has an approved prevention plan.
Except as provided in subsection (3) of this section, it shall be unlawful:
For the owner or operator to operate an onshore or offshore facility without an approved contingency plan as required under RCW 90.56.210, a spill prevention plan required by RCW 90.56.200, or financial responsibility in compliance with chapter 88.40 RCW and the federal oil pollution act of 1990; or
For the owner or operator of an onshore or offshore facility to transfer cargo or passengers to or from a covered vessel that does not have an approved contingency plan or an approved prevention plan required under chapter 88.46 RCW or financial responsibility in compliance with chapter 88.40 RCW and the federal oil pollution act of 1990.
The department may assess a civil penalty under RCW 43.21B.300 of up to one hundred thousand dollars against any person who is in violation of this section. Each day that a facility or person is in violation of this section shall be considered a separate violation.
It shall not be unlawful for a facility or other person to operate or accept cargo or passengers from a covered vessel if:
A contingency plan, a prevention plan, or financial responsibility is not required for the facility; or
A contingency and prevention plan has been submitted to the department as required by this chapter and rules adopted by the department and the department is reviewing the plan and has not denied approval.
Any person may rely on a copy of the statement issued by the department pursuant to *RCW 90.56.210(7) as evidence that the facility has an approved contingency plan and the statement issued pursuant to **RCW 90.56.200(4) as evidence that the facility has an approved spill prevention plan. Any person may rely on a copy of the statement issued by the ***office of marine safety, or its successor agency, the department, pursuant to RCW 88.46.060 as evidence that the vessel has an approved contingency plan and the statement issued pursuant to RCW 88.46.040 as evidence that the vessel has an approved prevention plan.
It shall be unlawful, except under the circumstances hereafter described in this section, for oil to enter the waters of the state from any ship or any fixed or mobile facility or installation located offshore or onshore whether publicly or privately operated, regardless of the cause of the entry or fault of the person having control over the oil, or regardless of whether it be the result of intentional or negligent conduct, accident or other cause. This section shall not apply to discharges of oil in the following circumstances:
The person discharging was expressly authorized to do so by the department prior to the entry of the oil into state waters; or
The person discharging was authorized to do so by operation of law as provided in RCW 90.48.200.
Except as otherwise provided in RCW 90.56.390, any person who negligently discharges oil, or causes or permits the entry of the same, shall incur, in addition to any other penalty as provided by law, a penalty in an amount of up to one hundred thousand dollars for every such violation, and for each day the spill poses risks to the environment as determined by the director. Any person who intentionally or recklessly discharges or causes or permits the entry of oil into the waters of the state shall incur, in addition to any other penalty authorized by law, a penalty of up to five hundred thousand dollars for every such violation and for each day the spill poses risks to the environment as determined by the director. The amount of the penalty shall be determined by the director after taking into consideration the size of the business of the violator, the gravity of the violation, the previous record of the violator in complying, or failing to comply, with the provisions of chapter 90.48 RCW, the speed and thoroughness of the collection and removal of the oil, and such other considerations as the director deems appropriate. Every act of commission or omission which procures, aids or abets in the violation shall be considered a violation under the provisions of this section and subject to the penalty herein provided for. The penalty provided for in this section shall be imposed pursuant to RCW 43.21B.300.
The director may impose the penalty authorized under subsection (1) of this section, in addition to any other assessment for damages the director is authorized to impose pursuant to law, if the discharge of oil is at an energy facility regulated by the energy facility site evaluation council.
Any penalty recovered pursuant to this section shall be credited to the coastal protection fund created in RCW 90.48.390.
It shall be the obligation of any person owning or having control over oil entering waters of the state in violation of RCW 90.56.320 to immediately collect and remove the same. If it is not feasible to collect and remove, said person shall take all practicable actions to contain, treat and disperse the same. The director shall prohibit or restrict the use of any chemicals or other dispersant or treatment materials proposed for use under this section whenever it appears to the director that use thereof would be detrimental to the public interest.
The department shall take all actions necessary to respond to a substantial threat of a discharge of oil or hazardous substances into the waters of this state or to collect, investigate, perform surveillance over, remove, contain, treat, or disperse oil or hazardous substances discharged into waters of the state. The department shall keep a record of all necessary expenses incurred in carrying out any project or activity authorized under this section, including a reasonable charge for the services performed by the state's personnel and the state's equipment and materials utilized. The authority granted hereunder shall be limited to projects and activities which are designed to protect the public interest or public property. The department may use staff, equipment, and material under its control, or contract with others, to carry out its responsibilities under this section.
Any person who unlawfully discharges oil or hazardous substances into the waters of the state or who poses a substantial threat of discharging oil or hazardous substances into the waters of the state shall be responsible for the necessary expenses incurred by the state in carrying out a project or activity authorized under RCW 90.56.350.
Any person owning oil or having control over oil that enters the waters of the state in violation of RCW 90.56.320 shall be strictly liable, without regard to fault, for the damages to persons or property, public or private, caused by such entry.
Damages for which responsible parties are liable under this section include loss of income, net revenue, the means of producing income or revenue, or an economic benefit resulting from an injury to or loss of real or personal property or natural resources.
Damages for which responsible parties are liable under this section include damages provided in subsections (1) and (2) of this section resulting from the use and deployment of chemical dispersants or from in situ burning in response to a violation of RCW 90.56.320.
In any action to recover damages resulting from the discharge of oil in violation of RCW 90.56.320, the owner or person having control over the oil shall be relieved from strict liability, without regard to fault, if that person can prove that the discharge was caused solely by:
An act of war or sabotage;
An act of God;
Negligence on the part of the United States government; or
Negligence on the part of the state of Washington.
The liability established in this section shall in no way affect the rights which: (a) The owner or other person having control over the oil may have against any person whose acts may in any way have caused or contributed to the discharge of oil, or (b) the state of Washington may have against any person whose actions may have caused or contributed to the discharge of oil.
In addition to any cause of action the state may have to recover necessary expenses for the cleanup of oil pursuant to RCW 90.56.340 and 90.56.330, and except as otherwise provided in RCW 90.56.390, any other person causing the entry of oil shall be directly liable to the state for the necessary expenses of oil cleanup arising from such entry and the state shall have a cause of action to recover from any or all of said persons. Except as otherwise provided in RCW 90.56.390, any person liable for cost of oil cleanup as provided in RCW 90.56.340 and 90.56.330 shall have a cause of action to recover for costs of cleanup from any other person causing the entry of oil into the waters of the state including any amount recoverable by the state as necessary expenses under RCW 90.56.330.
A person is not liable for removal costs or damages that result from actions taken or omitted to be taken in the course of rendering care, assistance, or advice consistent with the national contingency plan or as otherwise directed by the federal on-scene coordinator or by the official within the department with responsibility for oil spill response. This subsection (1)(a) does not apply:
To a responsible party;
With respect to personal injury or wrongful death; or
If the person is grossly negligent or engages in willful misconduct.
A responsible party is liable for any removal costs and damages that another person is relieved of under (a) of this subsection.
Nothing in this section affects the liability of a responsible party for oil spill response under state law.
For the purposes of this section:
"Damages" means damages of any kind for which liability may exist under the laws of this state resulting from, arising out of, or related to the discharge or threatened discharge of oil.
"Federal on-scene coordinator" means the federal official predesignated by the United States environmental protection agency or the United States coast guard to coordinate and direct federal responses under subpart D, or the official designated by the lead agency to coordinate and direct removal under subpart E, of the national contingency plan.
"National contingency plan" means the national contingency plan prepared and published under section 311(d) of the federal water pollution control act (33 U.S.C. Sec. 1321(d)), as amended by the oil pollution act of 1990 (P.L. 101-380, 104 Stat. 484 (1990)).
"Removal costs" means the costs of removal that are incurred after a discharge of oil has occurred or, in any case in which there is a substantial threat of a discharge of oil, the costs to prevent, minimize, or mitigate oil pollution from such an incident.
"Responsible party" means a person liable under RCW 90.56.370.
The department shall investigate each activity or project conducted under RCW 90.56.350 to determine, if possible, the circumstances surrounding the entry of oil into waters of the state and the person or persons allowing said entry or responsible for the act or acts which result in said entry. Whenever it appears to the department, after investigation, that a specific person or persons are responsible for the necessary expenses incurred by the state pertaining to a project or activity as specified in RCW 90.56.360, the department shall notify said person or persons by appropriate order. The department may not issue an order pertaining to a project or activity which was completed more than five years prior to the date of the proposed issuance of the order. The order shall state the findings of the department, the amount of necessary expenses incurred in conducting the project or activity, and a notice that said amount is due and payable immediately upon receipt of said order. The department may, upon application from the recipient of an order received within thirty days from the receipt of the order, reduce or set aside in its entirety the amount due and payable, when it appears from the application, and from any further investigation the department may desire to undertake, that a reduction or setting aside is just and fair under all the circumstances. If the amount specified in the order issued by the department notifying said person or persons is not paid within thirty days after receipt of notice imposing the same, or if an application has been made within thirty days as herein provided and the amount provided in the order issued by the department subsequent to such application is not paid within fifteen days after receipt thereof, the attorney general, upon request of the department, shall bring an action on behalf of the state in the superior court of Thurston county or any county in which the person to which the order is directed does business, or in any other court of competent jurisdiction, to recover the amount specified in the final order of the department. No order issued under this section shall be construed as an order within the meaning of RCW 43.21B.310 and shall not be appealable to the hearings board. In any action to recover necessary expenses as herein provided said person shall be relieved from liability for necessary expenses if the person can prove that the oil to which the necessary expenses relate entered the waters of the state by causes set forth in *RCW 90.56.370(2).
The department, through its duly authorized representatives, shall have the power to enter upon any private or public property, including the boarding of any ship, at any reasonable time, and the owner, managing agent, master, or occupant of such property shall permit such entry for the purpose of investigating conditions relating to violations or possible violations of this chapter, and to have access to any pertinent records relating to such property, including but not limited to operation and maintenance records and logs. The authority granted in this section shall not be construed to require any person to divulge trade secrets or secret processes. The director may issue subpoenas for the production of any books, records, documents, or witnesses in any hearing conducted pursuant to this chapter.
The department may utilize the authority granted to it in RCW 79.100.140 for the purposes of mitigating a potential threat to health, safety, or the environment from a vessel.
Any person who proposes to discharge oil or cause or permit the entry of same into waters of the state shall prior to such discharge obtain permission from the director. The director is authorized to permit the discharge of oil into waters of the state consistent with the pertinent effluent and receiving water standards and treatment requirements established by the department. Permission for industrial or commercial discharges shall be given through the terms of a waste discharge permit issued pursuant to RCW 90.48.180. Permission shall be given in all other cases on a form prescribed by the director.
The state oil spill response account is created in the state treasury. All receipts from RCW 82.23B.020(1) shall be deposited in the account. All costs reimbursed to the state by a responsible party or any other person for responding to a spill of oil shall also be deposited in the account. Moneys in the account shall be spent only after appropriation. The account is subject to allotment procedures under chapter 43.88 RCW.
The account shall be used exclusively to pay for:
The costs associated with the response to spills or imminent threats of spills of crude oil or petroleum products into the waters of the state; and
The costs associated with the department's use of an emergency response towing vessel.
During the 2017-2019 fiscal biennium, the legislature may transfer up to four million seven hundred twenty-one thousand dollars from the account to the oil spill prevention account created in RCW 90.56.510.
During the 2019-2021 fiscal biennium, the legislature may transfer up to one million forty thousand dollars from the account to the oil spill prevention account created in RCW 90.56.510.
Payment of response costs under subsection (2)(a)(i) of this section shall be limited to spills which the director has determined are likely to exceed one thousand dollars.
Before expending moneys from the account, but without delaying response activities, the director shall make reasonable efforts to obtain funding for response costs under subsection (2) of this section from the person responsible for the spill and from other sources, including the federal government.
Reimbursement for response costs from this account shall be allowed only for costs which are not covered by funds appropriated to the agencies responsible for response activities. Costs associated with the response to spills of crude oil or petroleum products shall include:
Natural resource damage assessment and related activities;
Spill related response, containment, wildlife rescue, cleanup, disposal, and associated costs;
Interagency coordination and public information related to a response; and
Appropriate travel, goods and services, contracts, and equipment.
The oil spill prevention account is created in the state treasury. All receipts from RCW 82.23B.020(2) shall be deposited in the account. Moneys from the account may be spent only after appropriation. The account is subject to allotment procedures under chapter 43.88 RCW. If, on the first day of any calendar month, the balance of the oil spill response account is greater than nine million dollars and the balance of the oil spill prevention account exceeds the unexpended appropriation for the current biennium, then the tax under RCW 82.23B.020(2) shall be suspended on the first day of the next calendar month until the beginning of the following biennium, provided that the tax shall not be suspended during the last six months of the biennium. If the tax imposed under RCW 82.23B.020(2) is suspended during two consecutive biennia, the department shall by November 1st after the end of the second biennium, recommend to the appropriate standing committees an adjustment in the tax rate. For the biennium ending June 30, 1999, and the biennium ending June 30, 2001, the state treasurer may transfer a total of up to one million dollars from the oil spill response account to the oil spill prevention account to support appropriations made from the oil spill prevention account in the omnibus appropriations act adopted not later than June 30, 1999.
Expenditures from the oil spill prevention account shall be used exclusively for the administrative costs related to the purposes of this chapter, and chapters 90.48, 88.40, and 88.46 RCW. In addition, until June 30, 2021, expenditures from the oil spill prevention account may be used, subject to amounts appropriated specifically for this purpose, for the development and annual review of local emergency planning committee emergency response plans in RCW 38.52.040(3). Starting with the 1995-1997 biennium, the legislature shall give activities of state agencies related to prevention of oil spills priority in funding from the oil spill prevention account. Costs of prevention include the costs of:
Routine responses not covered under RCW 90.56.500;
Management and staff development activities;
Development of rules and policies and the statewide plan provided for in RCW 90.56.060;
Facility and vessel plan review and approval, drills, inspections, investigations, enforcement, and litigation;
Interagency coordination and public outreach and education;
Collection and administration of the tax provided for in chapter 82.23B RCW; and
Appropriate travel, goods and services, contracts, and equipment.
Before expending moneys from the account for a response under subsection (2)(a) of this section, but without delaying response activities, the director shall make reasonable efforts to obtain funding for response costs under this section from the person responsible for the spill and from other sources, including the federal government.
During the 2019-2021 fiscal biennium, the legislature may appropriate moneys from the oil spill prevention account to the oil spill response account.
[ 2020 c 357 § 921; 2019 c 415 § 994; 2015 c 274 § 7; 2000 c 69 § 22; 1999 sp.s. c 7 § 2; 1997 c 449 § 3; 1995 2nd sp.s. c 14 § 525; 1994 sp.s. c 6 § 903; 1993 c 162 § 2; 1992 c 73 § 41; 1991 c 200 § 806; ]
A person commits the crime of reckless operation of a tank vessel if, while (a) navigating a tank vessel, (b) piloting a tank vessel, or (c) on the vessel control bridge and in control of the motion, direction, or speed of a tank vessel, the person, with recklessness as defined in RCW 9A.08.010, causes a release of oil.
Reckless operation of a tank vessel is a class C felony under chapter 9A.20 RCW.
[ 1991 c 200 § 604; ]
A person is guilty of operating a vessel while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or drugs if the person operates a covered vessel within this state while:
The person has 0.06 grams or more of alcohol per two hundred ten liters of breath, as shown by analysis of the person's breath made under RCW 90.56.550; or
The person has 0.06 percent or more by weight of alcohol in the person's blood as shown by analysis of the person's blood made under RCW 90.56.550; or
The person is under the influence of or affected by intoxicating liquor or drugs; or
The person is under the combined influence of or affected by intoxicating liquor or drugs.
The fact that any person charged with a violation of this section is or has been entitled to use such drug under the laws of this state shall not constitute a defense against any charge of violating this section.
Operating a vessel while intoxicated is a class C felony under chapter 9A.20 RCW.
Upon the trial of any civil or criminal action or proceeding arising out of acts alleged to have been committed by a person while operating a vessel while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or drugs, if the amount of alcohol in the person's blood or breath at the time alleged as shown by analysis of his blood or breath is less than 0.06 percent by weight of alcohol in his blood or 0.06 grams of alcohol per two hundred ten liters of the person's breath, it is evidence that may be considered with other competent evidence in determining whether the person was under the influence of intoxicating liquor or drugs.
The breath analysis shall be based upon grams of alcohol per two hundred ten liters of breath. The foregoing provisions of this section shall not be construed as limiting the introduction of any other competent evidence bearing upon the question whether the person was under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug.
Analysis of the person's blood or breath to be considered valid under this section shall have been performed according to methods approved by the state toxicologist and by an individual possessing a valid permit issued by the state toxicologist for this purpose. The state toxicologist shall approve satisfactory techniques or methods, to supervise the examination of individuals to ascertain their qualifications and competence to conduct such analyses, and to issue permits that are subject to termination or revocation at the discretion of the state toxicologist.
If a blood test is administered under this section, the withdrawal of blood for the purpose of determining its alcoholic content may be performed only by a physician, a registered nurse, or a qualified technician. This limitation shall not apply to the taking of breath specimens.
The person tested may have a physician, or a qualified technician, chemist, registered nurse, or other qualified person of his or her own choosing administer one or more tests in addition to any administered at the direction of a law enforcement officer. The failure or inability to obtain an additional test by a person shall not preclude the admission of evidence relating to the test or tests taken at the direction of a law enforcement officer.
Upon the request of the person who submits to a test or tests at the request of a law enforcement officer, full information concerning the test or tests shall be made available to the person or his or her attorney.
[ 1991 c 200 § 606; ]
No physician, registered nurse, qualified technician, or hospital, or duly licensed clinical laboratory employing or using services of the physician, registered nurse, or qualified technician, may incur any civil or criminal liability as a result of the act of withdrawing blood from any person when directed by a law enforcement officer to do so for the purpose of a blood test under RCW 90.56.550. This section shall not relieve any physician, registered nurse, qualified technician, or hospital or duly licensed clinical laboratory from civil liability arising from the use of improper procedures or failing to exercise the required standard of care.
A facility that receives crude oil from a railroad car must provide advance notice to the department that the facility will receive crude oil from a railroad car, as provided in this section. The advance notice must include the route taken to the facility within the state, if known, and the scheduled time, location, volume, region per bill of lading, type, vapor pressure, and gravity as measured by standards developed by the American petroleum institute, of crude oil received. Each week, a facility that provides advance notice under this section must provide the required information regarding the scheduled arrival of railroad cars carrying crude oil to be received by the facility in the succeeding seven-day period. A facility is not required to provide advance notice when there is no receipt of crude oil from a railroad car scheduled for a seven-day period.
Twice per year, pipelines that transport crude oil must report to the department the following information about the crude oil transported by the pipeline through the state: The volume of crude oil, gravity of the crude oil as measured by standards developed by the American petroleum institute, type of crude oil, and the state or province of origin of the crude oil. This report must be submitted each year by July 31st for the period January 1st through June 30th and by January 31st for the period July 1st through December 31st.
The department may share information provided by a facility through the advance notice system established in this section with the state emergency management division and any county, city, tribal, port, or local government emergency response agency upon request.
The department must publish information collected under this section on a quarterly basis on the department's internet website. With respect to the information reported under subsection (1)(a) of this section, the information published by the department must be aggregated on a statewide basis by route through the state, by week, and by type of crude oil. The report may also include other information available to the department including, but not limited to, place of origin, modes of transport, number of railroad cars delivering crude oil, and number and volume of spills during transport and delivery.
To further strengthen rail safety and the transportation of crude oil, the department must provide to the utilities and transportation commission data reported by facilities on the characteristics, volatility, vapor pressure, and volume of crude oil transported by rail, as required under subsection (1)(a) of this section.
A facility providing advance notice under this section is not responsible for meeting advance notice time frame requirements under subsection (1) of this section in the event that the schedule of arrivals of railroad cars carrying crude oil changes during a seven-day period.
Consistent with the requirements of chapter 42.56 RCW, the department and any state, local, tribal, or public agency that receives information provided under this section may not disclose any such information to the public or to nongovernmental entities that contains proprietary, commercial, or financial information unless that information is aggregated. The requirement for aggregating information does not apply when information is shared by the department with emergency response agencies as provided in subsection (2) of this section.
The department shall adopt rules to implement this section. The advance notice system required in this section must be consistent with the oil transfer reporting system adopted by the department pursuant to RCW 88.46.165.
The department must provide to the relevant policy and fiscal committees of the senate and house of representatives updates by December 31, 2019, and December 31, 2021, consistent with the requirements of RCW 43.01.036, as to the progress made in completing state and federal geographic response plans as needed in contingency plans required under RCW 90.56.060, 90.56.210, and 88.46.060.
In its updates of geographic response plans, the department must address situations where oils, depending on their qualities, weathering, environmental factors, and method of discharge, may submerge or sink in water.
All requirements in this section are subject to the availability of amounts appropriated for the specific purposes described.
To the extent practicable and consistent with RCW 88.46.180, the department shall periodically evaluate and update planning standards for oil spill response equipment required under contingency plans required by this chapter in order to ensure access in the state to equipment that represents the best achievable protection to respond to a worst case spill and provide for continuous operation of oil spill response activities to the maximum extent practicable and without jeopardizing crew safety, as determined by the incident commander or the unified command. The department must coordinate evaluation and update planning requirements under this section with requirements under RCW 88.46.180 to eliminate duplication.
[ 2015 c 274 § 28; ]
A facility constructed or permitted after January 1, 2019, may not load or unload crude oil into or from a rail tank car unless the oil has a vapor pressure of less than nine pounds per square inch.
A facility may not load or unload crude oil into or from a rail tank car unless the oil has a vapor pressure of less than nine pounds per square inch beginning two years after the volume of crude oil transported by rail to the facility for a calendar year as reported under RCW 90.56.565 has increased more than ten percent above the volume reported for calendar year 2018.
The director may impose a penalty of up to twenty-five hundred dollars per day per rail tank car or the equivalent volume of oil for violations of this section. Any penalty recovered pursuant to this section must be credited to the coastal protection fund created in RCW 90.48.390.
This section does not: (a) Prohibit a railroad car carrying crude oil from entering Washington; (b) require a railroad car carrying crude oil to stop before entering Washington; or (c) require a railroad car carrying crude oil to be checked for vapor pressure before entering Washington.
[ 2019 c 354 § 1; ]
This chapter, being necessary for the general welfare, the public health, and the public safety of the state and its inhabitants, shall be liberally construed to effect their purposes. No rule, regulation, or order of the department shall be stayed pending appeal under this chapter.
Sections 101 through 429, 501 through 706, 805 through 807, 810 through 817, and 901 through 1118 of this act are necessary for the immediate preservation of the public peace, health, or safety, or support of the state government and its existing public institutions, and shall take effect immediately [May 15, 1991].
Sections 801 through 804, 808, and 809 of this act shall take effect October 1, 1991.
[ 1991 c 200 § 1119; ]